Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), Nabi-HB, is a sterile solution of immunoglobulin (5 ± 1% protein) containing antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). It is prepared from plasma donated by individuals with high titers of anti-HBs. The plasma is purified by an anion-exchange column chromatography method 1,2 with two added viral reduction steps described below. The product is formulated in 0.075 M sodium chloride, 0.15 M glycine, and 0.01% polysorbate 80, pH 6.25. It contains no preservative and is intended for single use by the intramuscular route only. The product appears as a clear to opalescent, nonturbid liquid.
The manufacturing steps are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of viral disease. The solvent/detergent treatment step, using tri-n-butyl phosphate and Triton® X-100, is effective in inactivating known enveloped viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 3 Virus filtration, using a Planova® 35 nm Virus Filter, is effective in reducing some known enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. 4 The inactivation and reduction of known enveloped and non-enveloped model viruses were validated in laboratory studies as summarized in the following table:
The product potency is expressed in international units (IU) by comparison to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Each vial contains greater than 312 IU/mL anti-HBs. The potency of each vial of Nabi-HB exceeds the potency of anti-HBs in a U.S. reference hepatitis B immune globulin (FDA). The U.S. reference has been tested by Nabi® against the WHO standard and found to be equal to 208 IU/mL.
Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) products provide passive immunization for individuals exposed to the hepatitis B virus as evidenced by a reduction in the attack rate of hepatitis B following use. 6-9
Clinical studies conducted prior to 1983 with hepatitis B immune globulins similar to Nabi-HB 10,11 indicate the advantage of simultaneous administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human). The Centers for Disease Control: and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advises that the combination prophylaxis be provided based upon the increased efficacy found with that regimen in neonates. 12 Cases of hepatitis B are rarely seen following exposure to HBV in persons with preexisting anti-HBs. However, no prospective studies have been performed on the efficacy of concurrent Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) administration following parenteral exposure, mucous membrane contact, or oral ingestion in adults.
Infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers are at risk of being infected with HBV and becoming chronic carriers. 13 The risk is especially great if the mother is also HBeAg-positive. 14 Studies conducted with hepatitis B immune globulins similar to Nabi-HB indicated that for an infant with perinatal exposure to an HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive mother, a regimen combining one dose of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) at birth with the Hepatitis B Vaccine series started soon after birth is 85-98% effective in preventing development of the HBV carrier state. 15-17 Regimens involving either multiple doses of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) alone or the vaccine series alone have a 70-90% efficacy, while a single dose of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) alone has 50% efficacy. 18
Since infants have close contact with primary caregivers and they have a higher risk of becoming HBV carriers after acute HBV infection, prophylaxis of an infant less than 12 months of age with Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) and Hepatitis B Vaccine is indicated if the mother or primary caregiver has acute HBV infection. 19
Sexual partners of HBsAg-positive persons are at increased risk of acquiring HBV infection. A single dose of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) is 75% effective if administered within two weeks of the last sexual exposure to a person with acute hepatitis B. 19
trials 20 of Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), given intramuscularly to 48 healthy volunteers demonstrate pharmacokinetic parameters similar to those reported by Schelermann and Kuwert. 21 The half-life for Nabi-HB was 24.8 ± 5.6 days. The clearance rate was 0.433 ± 0.144 L/day and the volume of distribution was 15.3 ± 6.2 L.
Maximum concentration of Nabi-HB was reached in 6.6 ± 3.0 days. The maximum concentration of anti-HBs achieved by Nabi-HB was consistent with that of another licensed Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) when compared in the same pharmacokinetics trial. Comparability of pharmacokinetics between Nabi-HB and a commercially available hepatitis B Immunoglobulin indicate that similar efficacy of Nabi-HB should be inferred.
Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), is indicated for treatment of acute exposure to blood containing HBsAg, perinatal exposure of infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers, sexual exposure to HBsAg-positive persons and household exposure to persons with acute HBV infection in the following settings:
Nabi-HB is indicated for intramuscular use only.
Individuals known to have had an anaphylactic or severe systemic reaction to human globulin should not receive Nabi-HB, Hepatits B Immune Globulin (Human), or any other human immune globulin. Nabi-HB contains less than 40 micrograms/mL IgA. Individuals who are deficient in IgA may have the potential to develop IgA antibodies and have an anaphylactoid reaction. The physician must weigh the potential benefit of treatment with Nabi-HB against the potential for hypersensitivity reactions.
In patients who have severe thrombocytopenia or any coagulation disorder that would contraindicate intramuscular injections, Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), should be given only if the expected benefits outweigh the potential risks.
Nabi-HB is made from human plasma. Products made from human plasma may carry a risk of transmitting infectious agents, e.g., viruses, and theoretically, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) agent. The risk that such products can transmit an infectious agent has been reduced by screening plasma donors for prior exposure to certain viruses, by testing for the presence of certain current viral infections, and by inactivating and/or reducing certain viruses. The Nabi-HB manufacturing process includes a solvent/detergent treatment step (using tri-n-butyl phosphate and Triton® X-100) that is effective in inactivating known enveloped viruses such as HBV, HCV, and HIV. Nabi-HB is filtered using a Planova® 35 nm Virus Filter that is effective in reducing the levels of some enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. These two processes are designed to increase product safety. Despite these measures, such products can still potentially transmit disease. There is also the possibility that unknown infectious agents may be present in such products. ALL infections thought by a physician possibly to have been transmitted by this product should be reported by the physician or other health care provider to Nabi at 1-800-458-4244. The physician should discuss the risks and benefits of this product with the patient.
Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), must be administered only intramuscularly for post-exposure prophylaxis. The preferred sites for intramuscular injections are the anterolateral aspect of the upper thigh and the deltoid muscle of the upper arm. If the buttock is used due to the volume to be injected, the central region should be avoided; only the upper, outer quadrant should be used, and the needle should be directed anteriorly (i.e., not inferiorly or perpendicular to the skin) to minimize the possibility of involvement with the sciatic nerve. 22
Vaccination with live virus vaccines should be deferred until approximately three months after administration of Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human). It may be necessary to revaccinate persons who received Nabi-HB shortly after live virus vaccination.
There are no available data on concomitant use of Nabi-HB and other drugs; therefore, Nabi-HB should not be mixed with other drugs.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Nabi-HB. It is also not known whether Nabi-HB can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Nabi-HB should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly indicated.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Nabi-HB is administered to a nursing mother.
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established for Nabi-HB. However, the safety and effectiveness of similar Hepatitis B immune globulins have been demonstrated in infants and children. 12
Seventy-six male and female volunteers received Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), intramuscularly in pharmacokinetics trials. 20 The number of patients with reactions related to the administration of Nabi-HB included local reactions such as pain 9 (12%), ache 2 (3%), erythema 2 (3%), heat 1 (1%), and burning 2 (3%) at the injection site, as well as systemic reactions such as headache 20 (26%), malaise 4 (5%), nausea 4 (5%), diarrhea 2 (3%) and myalgia 4 (5%). The majority of reactions were reported as mild. The following adverse events were reported once each in pharmacokinetics trials and were probably related to Nabi-HB: chills, fatigue, lightheadedness, abdominal cramping, and retching. There were no serious adverse events.
No anaphylactic reactions with Nabi-HB have been reported. However, these reactions, although rare, have been reported following the injection of human immune globulins. 23
Although no data are available, clinical experience reported with other human immune globulins suggests that the only manifestations of overdose with Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) would be pain and tenderness at the injection site.
This product is for intramuscular use only. The use of this product by the intravenous route is not indicated. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
It is important to use a separate vial, sterile syringe, and needle for each individual patient, in order to prevent transmission of infectious agents from one person to another. Any vial of Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), that has been entered should be used promptly. Do not reuse or save for future use. This product contains no preservative; therefore, partially used vials should be discarded immediately.
Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human) may be administered at the same time (but at a different site), or up to one month preceding hepatitis B vaccination without impairing the active immune response to Hepatitis B Vaccine. 11
Nabi-HB, Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (Human), is supplied as:
59730-4402-1 a carton containing a 1.0 mL single dose vial (>312 IU) and package insert
59730-4403-1 a carton containing a 5.0 mL single dose vial (>1560 IU) and package insert
Refrigerate between 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F). Do not freeze. Do not use after expiration date. Use within 6 hours after the vial has been entered.
Boca Raton, FL 33487
U.S. License No. 1022
Part No. 07.0210.01