PROXEED is a dietary supplement specifically formulated to help optimize sperm quality, an important factor in male reproductive health.

Suggested Use:   To help optimize sperm quality.

Key Constituents:   L-carnitine fumarate, fructose, acetyl-L-carnitine HCl, citric acid.

Levocarnitine (L-carnitine) is a carrier molecule for medium- and long-chain fatty acids and is essential in the transportation of these fatty acids into the mitochondria where they can be utilized for (beta)-oxidation. Levocarnitine is a component of both seminal plasma and sperm cells, and it plays a critical role in sperm maturation and potential sperm motility. 1-3

Fructose is one of the major energy-yielding substrates present in seminal fluid. 4

Acetyl-L-carnitine is the acetyl ester of levocarnitine and occurs naturally in the body. When converted to acetyl-CoA, it can enter the Krebs Cycle, be converted to acetoacetate (a ketone body) or be used for fatty acid synthesis. Additionally, acetyl-L-carnitine is important for membrane stabilization, 5-7 is the most prominent form of carnitine in sperm, 5-7 serves as a circulating energy source for sperm, 5-7 plays an important role in sperm maturation and metabolism 5-7 and provides the primary fuel for sperm motility. 4-5, 8

Citric acid is a key intermediate in the Kreb's Cycle.

Ingredients:   L-carnitine fumarate, mannitol, fructose, acetyl-L-carnitine HCl, polyethylene glycol, artificial flavor, citric acid, povidone, silicon dioxide.

Supplement Facts:
Serving Size 1 Packet
Servings Per Container 30
  Amount Per Packet % Daily Value
2g 1% *
1g **
1g **
0.5g **
*Percent Daily Values based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
** Daily Value not established.

Clinical Findings:   PROXEED contains ingredients that support the production of energy in sperm and are clinically proven to help promote optimum sperm motility, rapid linear progression and maturation. 2-3, 5, 8-12

Mean (± SD) percent motile sperm was normalized after 3 months of supplementation with L-carnitine. [p-not reported]

[ Vitali, G, et al, Drugs Experimental Clinical Research 1995; 21(4): 157-159 ]

Mean (± SEM) percent rapid linear progression showed a greater than 60% improvement after 4 months of supplementation with L-carnitine. [p>0.001]

[ Costa, M, et al, Andrologia 1994; 26: 155-159 ]

On average, sperm require 74 days to mature, and up to 30 additional days to become capable of fertilization. Sperm quality during 6 months of supplementation with the ingredients in PROXEED.

There has been only limited data on whether the ingredients in PROXEED have a measurable effect on sperm morphology.

Bioavailability/ : L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine have bioavailabilities of between 5 and 15% in healthy adults. Clinical studies have shown that oral doses of 3 g per day (total) of carnitines are appropriate to optimize sperm quality. 2, 8, 12 To achieve the appropriate dose, it is necessary for PROXEED to be provided as a powder formulation.

The half-lives of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine are approximately 3-4 hours. As a result, the total daily dose should be divided b.i.d., and spaced 8 or more hours apart to maintain elevated blood levels of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine.

:   Keep this and all dietary supplements out of the reach of children. As with any supplement, contact your doctor if you are currently taking prescription medicine.

Directions:   For Adult Males: Take two packets of PROXEED per day, one packet in the morning and one packet in the evening. Mix each packet with at least 4 ounces (120 ml) of juice or water.

How Supplied:   PROXEED is available in single dose packets packaged 30 per box. PROXEED's powder formulation allows for the necessary ingredients in the amounts shown to be effective in clinical trials.

To order PROXEED, visit the web site: or call toll-free:

(877) PROXEED (776-9333).

Manufactured for Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877. Product of Italy. proXeed™ is a trademark of Sigma-Tau HealthScience S.p.A.. Patent Pending. ©1999. All rights reserved.

References :

  1. Jeulin, C, et al , Role of Free L-carnitine and Acetyl-L-carnitine in Post Gonadal Maturation of Mammalian Spermatozoa. Human Reproduction Update 1996; 2(2): 87-102
  2. Vitali, G, et al , Carnitine Supplementation in Human Idiopathic Asthenospermia: Clinical Results. Drugs Experimental Clinical Research 1995; 21(4): 157-159
  3. Loumbakis, P, et al , Effect of L-carnitine in Patients with Asthenospermia; 12th Congress of the European Association of Urology, Sept. 1-4, 1996. Paris in European Urology 1996; 30(2): 225, Abstract 954
  4. Golan, R, et al , Influence of Various Substrates on the Acetylcarnitine: Carnitine Ratio in Motile and Immotile Human Spermatozoa. Reproduction and Fertility 1986; 78: 287-293
  5. Moncada, ML, et al , Effect of Acetylcarnitine Treatment in Oligoasthenospermic Patients. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 1992; 23(5): 221-224
  6. Bartellini, M, et al , L-carnitine and Acetylcarnitine in Human Sperm with Normal and Reduced Motility. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 1987; 19(1): 29-31
  7. Kohengkul, S, et al , Levels of L-carnitine and L-0-acetylcarnitine in Normal and Infertile Human Semen: A Lower Level of L-0-acetylcarnitine in Infertile Semen. Fertility and Sterility 1977; 28(12): 1333-1336
  8. Costa, M, et al , L-carnitine in Idiopathic Asthenozoospermia: A Multicenter Study. Andrologia 1994; 26: 155-159
  9. Campaniello, E, et al , Carnitine Administration in Asthenospermia; 4th International Congress of Andrology, Firenze, May 14-18, 1989. Abstract
  10. Muller-Tyl, E, et al , Effects of Carnitine on Sperm Count and Motility. Fertilitat 1988; 4(1): 1-4
  11. Micic, S, et al , Does L-carnitine Administered In Vivo Improve Sperm Motility? ARTA 1995; 7: 127-130
  12. Micic, S, Effects of L-carnitine on Sperm Motility and Number in Infertile Men; 16th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, San Francisco, Oct. 4-9, 1998. Abstract

pxd-phpi-4 ©1999 Sigma-Tau Consumer Products 10/99

Sigma-Tau Consumer Products
a division of Sigma-Tau
Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877



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